Maldwyn Centre for Theoretical Physics

The centre was founded in 1991 in Montgomeryshire, Wales and moved to its present location in Suffolk in 1995. The centre works on the theoretical foundations of physics, looking at how to simplify and build on the better understanding that results. The aim of the centre is to simplify the understanding of physics and to show how different interpretations of accepted formulae and numerical results can provide alternative interpretations. A quarterly journal of progress is published and circulated.

Latest update 16 November 2021

The foundation paper was published in the Journal of Physical Mathematics at http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/ArchiveJPM/articleinpress-physical-mathematics-open-access.php as Lawrence M (2015) How SI Units Hide the Equal Strength of Gravitation and Charge Fields. J Phys Math 7: 151. doi:10.4172/2090-0902.1000151.

The paper can be read here, with the missing tables here .

Unfortunately there are a handful mistakes that were not corrected in the publication process, beyond the omission of the five Tables, so for a definitive reading of the paper in full as submitted for publication, please see here or as corrected in the journal format here although you will need to download the pdf to see what the corrections actually represent.

After this foundation paper, which was eventually published correctly, a further paper was published explaining that the difference between relativistic and quantum environments is most likely due to the presence or absence of viscosity. The viscosity is caused by the composition of the universe itself from particle and anti-particle pairs, which is termed the 'background'. Where the background gets in the way of motion, there is a drag on the motion of all particles. The formation of tunnels through the background during entanglement enables the motion of the entangled composite particles without viscosity. So where viscosity is felt, all particles lose energy and have a terminal velocity. Where there is no viscosity, there is no terminal velocity and non-locality exists.

The paper can be viewed here. It is also soon to be published as a book, and that version can be viewed here.

The latest December 2021 update explains how wave-particle duality can physically exist because light is emitted in two parts that are intimately linked at emission and observation. The photon travels within an initially spherical expanding shell whose changes in width reflect the density of the background through which it moves. The paper is Wave particle duality

There is also a set of videos which explain the whole of what is now renamed to its original name of Ring Theory.

The first is The basic underlying structure of the universe which explains the outline of the overall system of one particle/anti-particle type and one composite base form - the loop – and how these simplest foundations underlie the particles that we observe, their interactions and the background against which their actions occur so that it is possible to understand why a hypothesis based on these simplest foundations, one particle type, one basic compound loop form and only two energies, can be used to explain so much that we see in the universe.

What happens when zero mass black holes unmergeexplains where the only particle and anti-particles appear from, why there is only one size of observable charge, why loop masses are only gravitationally attractive, and how loops form and then inflate, so that it is possible to understand that breaking apart a zero mass black hole ensures that electron and proton charge sizes are the same, how the existence of negative mass is hidden within single loops and how big bangs begin.

What is the total energy of the universe? explains where the motional energies due to the fundamental mass and charge of meons can be found, why they are always equal and how a loop with zero total mass energy can still rotate, so that it is possible to understand how motions can occur and yet the total energy of the universe always remains at zero.

What size was our inflation? explains how the loop enables inflation to be understood as a physical effect, how three spatial dimensions ensure three fermion families and, although other big bangs may have different inflation rates, they will still have the same laws of physics, so that it is possible to understand that having three fermion families implies no extra spatial dimensions, that our big bang is one of many in our only universe and how inflation drives loop sizes to standardise.

Why there is only one universe and many big bangs explains how with only one size for zero mass black holes and their constituent meons, there can only be one universe, but many big bangs, of two types, within it (each of different chemistry) and how to identify failed ones within our own almost fine-tuned big bang volume, so that it is possible to understand that there is no need for multiverses or apparent fine tuning for our constants of nature – we live in a long-lived big bang because it has appropriate values, if it did not it would have failed long ago as did many with inappropriate values.

What separates quantum mechanic and relativistic environments explains how the background is a relativistic environment whose viscosity takes energy from meons as they move, providing an arrow of time, and where to find volumes where the background, and its viscosity, is excluded and non-locality exists, so that it is possible to understand that relativity and quantum mechanics are not reconcilable.

What sort of properties could other big bangs have? explains how different big bang inflation rates lead to different chemistries and emission/absoption spectra, how dark matter can be atomic and why our fermions are loops of three meon pairs – rings, so that it is possible to understand why the atomic forms that predominate in our part of the universe are threefold symmetric and why dark matter cannot interact strongly with our matter.

How the gravitational constant hides the equal strength of mass and charge fields explains how the gravitational constant G can be eliminated from all equations by splitting its effects into a dimensionless factor altering mass and distance units and that an additional adjustment to the value of the Coulomb then produces a self-consistent set of Planck property values, so that it is possible to understand why mass and charge equations can now be used in the same form, with charge-mass qc replacing mass m, why their field strengths are identical for identical source sizes, and why gravitational mass and inertial mass are identical.

Why gravity appears to be weaker than charge explains how the mass and charge field strengths we observe are different because they are due to being generated by different processes and why there is no grand unification of forces possible, so that it is possible to understand that the colour force is a physical asymmetry in loops, leptons can exist within nucleon stacks and that there is no weak force, just the replacement of leptons in neutron stacks.

Why the angular frequency of a loop is 1/2 w rather than w and other 1/2s explains how the need for meons in loops to have consistent angular momentum and motional energy values requires that the meon velocities and radii of rotation are symmetrically adjusted which then explains why the electron appears to have 720 degrees of rotation, so that it is possible to understand that currently only half the kinetic energy of bodies in a stable orbit is observed and that including the kinetic energy of the loop spin energy aligns the energy and force equations in such a system.

Why the value of the electron charge needs to be adjusted by the square root of 10^-7 explains how the wrong choice of previous unit system as the base for Systeme International units means that they are missing a sq root 10^-7 factor and how a novel form of dimensionality analysis leads directly to the laws of physics, so that it is possible to understand why eliminating the gravitational constant G and adjusting the Coulomb by the sq root 10^-7 factor produces double-adjusted SI units and these simplify physics.

What is dimensionality and how does it explain the laws of physics? explains how assigning powers of an underlying property to all properties, as a form of dimensionality analysis, explains the laws of physics and underlies the frequency-independence of the effect of background viscosity on photons – tired light, so that it is possible to understand why real constants of nature have a power y^0 and that light speed is a quasi-constant, being Y^2, not a true constant of nature.

What is the double-adjusted SI Planck unit system? explains how to adjust SI units into a self-consistent set of values which underpin the use of dimensionality analysis to generate laws of physics, so that it is possible to understand the usefulness of the DASI units system in simplifying physics.

Why the red shift of tired light is frequency independent explains why the structure of the photon, as six pairs of almost-merged meon pairs, implies that all photons experience the same viscosity energy loss when travelling through the background and that they represent frequency-independent tired light, which has not yet been accounted for in cosmology, so that it is possible to understand that the main red shift we observe is mainly due to tired light, whose effect is 105% of the Hubble rate, meaning that our big bang is contracting at 5% of the Hubble rate and there is no expansion of space and no need for dark energy.

Dark matter analysed explains how dark matter is different to normal matter 3-pair number loops, how dark matter can be atomic and how to calculate the initially created ratios of certain types of matter to dark matter, before massive black holes skew those ratios, so that it is possible to understand that dark matter is more complex than just one type of particle and that some of its odd-number pair loop structures could be atomic.

Why fermion masses are proportional to their charges explains why it is likely that the observable mass of a loop is dependent on its total charge (or twist energies), a neutrino and anti-neutrino are only 60 degrees of rotation different and how merged meon pairs attached to unmerged meons in loops form chains which drag through the background and transmit forces, so that it is possible to understand the difficulty in differentiating neutrino from anti-neutrino, how zero charge leptons move between families and why in bulk neutrinos may show a small mass effect.

Red shifts and dark energy explains how the red shifts of objects beyond our big bang envelope sets the value of tired light red shift, meaning that inside that envelope the Hubble rate is the net of a greater tired light effect versus the smaller contraction of our big bang implying that there is no expansion, or acceleration of expansion, of space or need for dark energy, so that it is possible to understand that there are probably many observable failed big bangs within our own big bang envelope and that these can be distinguished due to their abnormal red shifts compared with adjacent objects that are components of our big bang, so that we have effectively a mix of the steady state and big bang theories.

How to distunguish matter and anti-matter and why there is no asymmetry explains that loops have additional degrees of freedom when reversing properties, so that the only difference between loop and anti-loop is the sign of charge, implying that there is no matter/anti-matter asymmetry in the universe, so that it is possible to understand that a photon and a battery are perfect matter/anti-matter objects and that nature prefers states of zero totals of charge and energy, the latter either within energy types or across them.

Entanglement, tunnels and superposition explains what physically it means for loops to be entangled, how tunnels between entangled loops enable non-local travel and how a superposition is created at tunnel ends, so that it is possible to understand the physical basis for quantum mechanics and how that enables photons to travel non-locally and yet, when observed, to be measured as journeying at local light speed from source to observer.

Time explains how there are three levels of time, one of which we have no access to, and how the only real time is owned by a loop in its frequency, almost everything else is an average over a volume, so that it is possible to understand that there was no loop time, which is what we experience, before loops formed and that, because of the background viscosity, different frames of reference comparisons are not equal.

Energy, force and inertia explains how energy is a vector and how energy equations for stable orbits currently omit half the kinetic energies present, including which aligns energy and force, other than the extra distance term in the latter, so that it is possible to understand that motional energies in an orbit are centrifugal, as are the motional forces, so that a stable orbit can be defined to be of zero total energy – because there is no energy to change.

Newton's choices explains why Newton unfortunately chose his definitions to satisfy his infinitesimal system and changed the prevailing interpretations so that inertia lost its real meaning of being the energy (or force) that a body has in a frame of reference – a body moves because it has an energy or force in a frame of reference, so that it is possible to understand why there is a need to amend Newton’s laws to revert towards the interpretations that previously prevailed, although updated for the effect of chasing energies and forces in his third law and the missing kinetic energy of spin energy component.

Bicycle stabiity explains how the interpretation of energy as a vector explains why there is a net upward energy in a bicycle wheel that is rotating in contact with the ground which acts to keep the wheel upright, so that it is possible to understand how the use of vector energy can improve understanding of systems.

The structure of loops and zerons explains how the mass energy of a loop is always balanced by its spin energy, how loops stack, what those stacks represent, what the symmetries of any pair number loops will be and how the existence of loop and anti-loop stacking in opposite spin directions, zerons, underlies pair creation, so that it is possible to understand why some loops are fast moving and others not, how photons replace the energy of loops lost to background viscosity and how a stable loop stack requires balanced asymmetries.

Loop symmetries and stack formation explains why photons are limited to local light speed, why symmetric leptons do not need to be balanced in stacks, whilst asymmetric quarks do and why odd pair number loops form atoms whilst even pair number loops cannot, so that it is possible to understand that the Higgs has no mass-giving properties, it is just a boson composed of an even number of loops, forces are transmitted by merged meon pairs forming chains, loop asymmetries underlie colour 'force' and that the existence of photons is evidence of chasing and thus of negative mass.

How do loops and the background interact? explains how forces are transmitted by merged meon pairs, not bosons, attached to unmerged meons in loops that are dragged through the background as chains whose lengths and field strengths reflect the loop properties, so that it is possible to understand that bosons are just stacks of loops whose asymmetries have been balanced and whose charges align with either the local pair-number loop maximum charge or zero.

What carries forces? explains how the rotation, vibration and translation of chains of merged meon pairs attached to unmerged meons in loops transmit charge, gravitation and spin fields into the background, how the background affects the loops and how massive black holes can break loops into chains as they approach, so that it is possible to understand that there is no grand unification of forces or energies, how bosons are not force carriers and how photons are energy providers.

What is a massive black hole made from? explains why a massive black holes is made from chains, that were loops that got stretched and broken as the loops entered the hole, why there are no singularities within any black holes, why no information is lost when loops enter and why quantum mechanics does not exist with them, so that it is possible to understand the actions of black holes in symmetry sieving, taking in asymmetric loops and only emitting symmetric loops, which is how they evaporate, and increasing the fraction of symmetric dark matter loops over time.

What are photons? explains the physical structure of photons as six partially merged pairs spiralling at a frequency, which are trying to become fully merged but are limited to local light speed in translational velocity by the density of the local background, which is evidence of the existence of chase energy and negative matter, so that it is possible to understand the physical nature of experiments such as the entangled 2-photon filter, where even after the filter there will be both photons present at the tunnel end that went through the filter.

Relativity and thermodynamics explains what it means to transfer energy from one loop to another which is the physical basis for thermodynamics, how the relativistic environment creates the arrow of time and how the background viscosity ensures that there are no energy-free reversible actions, so that it is possible to understand how chasing forces underlie energy transfer in loops and how stacking loops alters the stack frequency.

Anomalous magnetic moments are variable explains how the whole of the magnetic moment above 1 is the anomalous part of the magnetic moment of charged leptons in cyclotrons or Penning traps, how the use of a ‘magic’ energy value for those leptons could produce the observed values and that there will be a range of magnetic moment values proportional to the lepton orbiting energies, so that it is possible to understand that the stabilising magnetic fields in cyclotrons or Penning traps are what produces an offset in the radii of orbit of the positive and negative meons differentially, which results in the total magnetic moment observed, which would be only 1 if the lepton were a point charge, thus evidencing lepton structure.

Quantum mechanics and wave-particle duality explains that the emission and observation of a photon consists of two related parts, that the stacking of a photon with a loop so that its velocity becomes zero (an observation) is particulate whereas the disruption of the shells within which it travels (an observation) causes the shells’ components to attach to the photon at a random point on the outer shell where its velocity will be zero, which is wave-like, so that it is possible to understand that inside the shell the photon is non-local, whilst the shells’ outward expansion is relativistic, until one type of observation occurs, when the type of observation decides the type of result, wave or particle.

List of convincing points and unnecessary ideas is a list from the video set which shows powerful points that link together comprehensively to explain what we observe in the universe and what aspects, which are currently being explored towards a theory of everything, are not required by the hypothesis described here, so that it should be possible to understand why the hypothesis here is a theory of everything, if not necessarily the final theory of everything.

The September 2021 update outlines two papers, the first, shown here as Big Bang contraction and atomic dark matter, explains that the hgher rate of expansion at greater distances is an incorrect interpretation of the greater red shift effect of tired light counteracted by a Big Bang contraction and some calculations of dark matter ratios.

The second paper, Variable anomolous magnetic momentsr explains that the whole 2.0023+ (equivalent to the g factor and currently interpreted anomalous magnetic moment) of the leptons is due to the velocity at which they are orbiting in traps or cyclotrons.

The June 2021 update outlines one paper which explains the first and second laws of thermodynamics and how quantum tunnels are formed to produce non-locality and superposition. Two additional papers are listed below. The paper is shown here as Thermodynamics and quantum tunnels

There is also a paper on the ratio of normal matter to dark matter. The paper is shown here as Dark Matter

There is also a further paper on the symmetry groups underlying both normal and dark matter. The paper is shown here as Symmetry Groups

The March 2021 update outlines two papers. One paper is shown here as Dipole properties which investigates the properties of the meons in a loop when considered as three separate dipoles of a positive and negative meon.

The other paper Loop dynamics considers the dynamics of loop systems and orbital systems to show how the two are related and why the angular momentum of the former is twice that of the latter, even though both have the same equation for energy content.

The December 2020 update shows the publication of an extended version of last quarter’s paper on viscosity red shift. The paper is shown here as Astronomical redshifts and cosmic solutions

It also has a published paper on eliminating the gravitational constant from general relativity and cosmology Eliminating G and another explaining why the electron spin g-factor is greater than 2 Electron g-factor

The September 2020 update looks at the reinterpretation of astronomical redshifts using the structure of photons from loops of meons providing a linear Z shift relationship with distance. The paper is also shown here as Astronomical redshifts reinterpreted

The June 2020 update considers how chase motion and viscosity slope resembles gravitation.

The March 2020 update is mainly about meon and loop dynamics. It has been a major target to be able to calculate the forces at work between meons across loops as the system has become clearer. Having actually managed to evaluate the actions of six meons in a subject loop with six meons in an object loop, it has become clear that in order to replicate to some extent the changes from ‘colour’ to strong to electromagnetic forces, the use of only inverse square law over distance cannot be the whole picture.

The December 2019 update covers stack magnetic moments with the conclusion that the differential orbital radii of meons, due to M+s versus M-s effective masses, cannot be the source of the anomalous magnetic moment of loops.

The September 2019 update covers photon energy red-shift loss over distance and how this affects the possible size and expansion rate of the universe.

The Update from June 2019 looks at the electric and magetic fields generated within the loop by the meons and emphasises that there is not just one shared potential field between any two particles, but two separate potential fields (mass, charge, electric, magnetic) which may not have the same direction of action. In the case of composite particles made of loops the two fields will have the same line of action and the resulant double strength lies at the heart of g=2 for loops like the electron and the mistaken energy/force equation relationship.June 2019 Update

The Update from March 2019 considers more closely the dynamics of meon motion within loops, providing precise values for the radii at which the different meons rotate at from the centre of rotation of the electron loop.March 2019 Update

The foundation paper shows how the use of SI units hides the equal strength of gravitational and charge fields and the it is the presence or absence of viscosity in a local environment that separates the relativistic and quantum frameworks. The speed of light is not a constant but is a terminal velocity set by the local environment, varying from close to zero around dense mass environments to above c where a no-background environment is established.

Please note that although the viscosity file includes how to calcuate the anomalous magnetic moments of the leptons, it stretches across all sizes and areas of physics to represent a theory of everything. Unfortunately the final step in the moment calculation has not yet been completed, so the paper remains work in progress.

The anomalous magnetic moments of the leptons and a theory of everything including why viscosity separates relativistic and quantum environments.

There is also a one-page explanation of the theory which gives an initial oversight, called Preon Ring Theory.

I have produced an electronic book which combines all the previous work and explains how the project began and how each step leads logically to the next:

A New Scientific Revolution

The is also an update paper showing the previous work, including that the DAPU set of units is the better physical set, rather than the TAPU set.Update September 2017

The foundation paper:

Showing h and G to be dimensionless

A recent paper on a theory of everything was presented at the Vigier series of conferences in Belgium in August. It is an overview of all the points necessary to create the alternative interpretation of physics postulated here. It is in the form of 95 short theses.A Hypothetical Pre-Fermion TOE in 95 Theses.

The abstract is: This is a hypothetical pre-fermion particle theory of everything, explaining the symmetric foundations of physics and why relativistic and quantum systems are different and irreconcilable. It is based on a single particle/anti-particle foundation and the background from which they emerge, using which the zoo of fermions, bosons, nucleons, photons and the observed universe are explained. The only two underlying types of energy presumed to exist are treated identically and produce standard formulae, except where the missing component in current formulae is shown to be necessary to explain stable orbits and why there is a maximum speed through the background universe. Matter and anti-matter are shown to be present in equal quantities and some dark matter is shown as the same composite loop form as matter, but with immiscible symmetries due to different number of particle/anti-particle pairs in the composites. The emergence of the particle/anti-particles from merged to unmerged state is shown to lead to randomly distributed failed big bang events within the single universe through which our successful big bang is expanding. Viscosity in the background universe, comprising merged particle/anti-particle pairs, saps energy from all composite particles and produces the light speed terminal velocity of photons. The resultant viscosity red-shift needs to be accommodated within current estimates of the size, age and expansion rate of the universe. The viscosity of the background in sapping energy from all motion within it leads to an arrow of time, the second law of thermodynamics and the relativistic framework. Where the background is absent, in tunnels between entangled loops, there is no viscosity present and velocities above light speed are possible and the quantum framework exists. Composite loops formed from the unit meon building blocks during different inflation events produce different sizes of fermions, nucleons and atoms, but produce a type of universe with symmetries similar to ours as the inevitable outcome of a successful inflation event. The rate of expansion after a big bang is a function of the size of the equivalent of the electron formed during inflation and that size defines whether the expansion will eventually succeed or fail. Key paradoxes are shown not to be paradoxes. This framework explains what energy and inertia are, how positive-only mass arises, spin units of ½ h, electrons with g=2 and 720 degrees of rotation, charge unit sizes, why particles have internal magnetic moments, the second law of thermodynamics and the arrow of time, where there is a maximum speed for particles, why stable states exist, why tired light may reduce the need for dark energy or the size of the universe, why there is no matter/anti-matter imbalance, what different types of dark matter are likely to be, the physical reality underlying zero point energy, why physics fails nowhere, why there is only one universe and threefold symmetry within our nucleons.

Additionally there is a short paper showing how some parts of basic rotational mechanics should be reinterpreted in the light of outward circumferential forces in action.Basic Mechanics Reinterpreted

Maldwyn Centre for Theoretical Physics, 38 ParkRoad, Ipswich Suffolk UK +44 7941479964