Maldwyn Centre for Theoretical Physics

The centre was founded in 1991 in Montgomeryshire, Wales and moved to its present location in Suffolk in 1995. The centre works on the theoretical foundations of physics, looking at how to simplify and build on the better understanding that results. The aim of the centre is to simplify the understanding of physics and to show how different interpretations of accepted formulae and numerical results can provide alternative interpretations. A quarterly journal of progress is published and circulated.

The foundation paper was published in the Journal of Physical Mathematics at as Lawrence M (2015) How SI Units Hide the Equal Strength of Gravitation and Charge Fields. J Phys Math 7: 151. doi:10.4172/2090-0902.1000151.

The paper can be read here, with the missing tables here .

Unfortunately there are a handful mistakes that were not corrected in the publication process, beyond the omission of the five Tables, so for a definitive reading of the paper in full as submitted for publication, please see here or as corrected in the journal format here although you will need to download the pdf to see what the corrections actually represent.

After this foundation paper, which was eventually published correctly, a further paper was published explaining that the difference between relativistic and quantum environments is most likely due to the presence or absence of viscosity. The viscosity is caused by the composition of the universe itself from particle and anti-particle pairs, which is termed the 'background'. Where the background gets in the way of motion, there is a drag on the motion of all particles. The formation of tunnels through the background during entanglement enables the motion of the entangled composite particles without viscosity. So where viscosity is felt, all particles lose energy and have a terminal velocity. Where there is no viscosity, there is no terminal velocity and non-locality exists.

The paper can be viewed here. It is also soon to be published as a book, and that version can be viewed here.

Additionally there is a short paper on a possible very short solution to Fermat's Last Theorem using a methodology related to relativistic additionA possible short Fermat solution.

A recent paper on a theory of everything was presented at the Vigier series of conferences in Belgium in August. It is an overview of all the points necessary to create the alternative interpretation of physics postulated here. It is in the form of 95 short theses.A Hypothetical Pre-Fermion TOE in 95 Theses.

The abstract is: This is a hypothetical pre-fermion particle theory of everything, explaining the symmetric foundations of physics and why relativistic and quantum systems are different and irreconcilable. It is based on a single particle/anti-particle foundation and the background from which they emerge, using which the zoo of fermions, bosons, nucleons, photons and the observed universe are explained. The only two underlying types of energy presumed to exist are treated identically and produce standard formulae, except where the missing component in current formulae is shown to be necessary to explain stable orbits and why there is a maximum speed through the background universe. Matter and anti-matter are shown to be present in equal quantities and some dark matter is shown as the same composite loop form as matter, but with immiscible symmetries due to different number of particle/anti-particle pairs in the composites. The emergence of the particle/anti-particles from merged to unmerged state is shown to lead to randomly distributed failed big bang events within the single universe through which our successful big bang is expanding. Viscosity in the background universe, comprising merged particle/anti-particle pairs, saps energy from all composite particles and produces the light speed terminal velocity of photons. The resultant viscosity red-shift needs to be accommodated within current estimates of the size, age and expansion rate of the universe. The viscosity of the background in sapping energy from all motion within it leads to an arrow of time, the second law of thermodynamics and the relativistic framework. Where the background is absent, in tunnels between entangled loops, there is no viscosity present and velocities above light speed are possible and the quantum framework exists. Composite loops formed from the unit meon building blocks during different inflation events produce different sizes of fermions, nucleons and atoms, but produce a type of universe with symmetries similar to ours as the inevitable outcome of a successful inflation event. The rate of expansion after a big bang is a function of the size of the equivalent of the electron formed during inflation and that size defines whether the expansion will eventually succeed or fail. Key paradoxes are shown not to be paradoxes. This framework explains what energy and inertia are, how positive-only mass arises, spin units of ˝ h, electrons with g=2 and 720 degrees of rotation, charge unit sizes, why particles have internal magnetic moments, the second law of thermodynamics and the arrow of time, where there is a maximum speed for particles, why stable states exist, why tired light may reduce the need for dark energy or the size of the universe, why there is no matter/anti-matter imbalance, what different types of dark matter are likely to be, the physical reality underlying zero point energy, why physics fails nowhere, why there is only one universe and threefold symmetry within our nucleons.

There is an Update from March 2019 considers more closely the dynamics of meon motion within loops, providing precise values for the radii at which the different meons rotate at from the centre of rotation of the electron loop.March 2019 Update

The Update from June 2019 looks at the electric and magetic fields generated within the loop by the meons and emphasises that there is not just one shared potential field between any two particles, but two separate potential fields (mass, charge, electric, magnetic) which may not have the same direction of action. In the case of composite particles made of loops the two fields will have the same line of action and the resulant double strength lies at the heart of g=2 for loops like the electron and the mistaken energy/force equation relationship.June 2019 Update

Additionally there is a short paper showing how some parts of basic rotational mechanics should be reinterpreted in the light of outward circumferential forces in action.Basic Mechanics Reinterpreted

I have to apologise for the lack of updates made to the website recently. To make up for it, there are now some quarterly updates added here.

The September 2019 update covers photon energy red-shift loss over distance and how this affects the possible size and expansion rate of the universe.

The December 2019 update covers stack magnetic moments with the conclusion that the differential orbital radii of meons, due to M+s versus M-s effective masses, cannot be the source of the anomalous magnetic moment of loops.

The March 2020 update is mainly about meon and loop dynamics. It has been a major target to be able to calculate the forces at work between meons across loops as the system has become clearer. Having actually managed to evaluate the actions of six meons in a subject loop with six meons in an object loop, it has become clear that in order to replicate to some extent the changes from ‘colour’ to strong to electromagnetic forces, the use of only inverse square law over distance cannot be the whole picture.

The June 2020 update considers how chase motion and viscosity slope resembles gravitation.

The September 2020 update looks at the reinterpretation of astronomical redshifts using the structure of photons from loops of meons providing a linear Z shift relationship with distance. The paper is also shown here as Astronomical redshifts reinterpreted

In fact, even the proposed change to exponential decay over distance for the fundamental M and Q forces still does not fully explain those forces actions. The sudden repulsion for nucleons inside around 1 x10^-15 m is not yet explainable. The change in system to accommodate the observed changes in force over distance is in four parts.

The first is that the fundamental M and Q forces only act on themselves and decay exponentially. The M force still chases opposites.

The s and q forces only act on themselves and decay by inverse square over distance. The s forces attract same and repel opposite, with q forces attracting opposite and repelling same.

The latter means that for all loops, the actions of s and q exactly match within the range that s can be ‘observed’ by other loops. This range is expected, and modeled, to be about the smaller wavelength of the two loops.

The overall effect is that the exponential M and Q can be adjusted to decay around the strong force range (mostly due to the net effect of MM same attraction) with the s and q forces balanced beyond that range until the loop wavelength when only the q forces are left in action.

This conforms to the expected actions, other than the repulsion closer in, with the two loops in the same plane. The effect of opposite loop rotation is small, being only where the maximum and minimum forces during rotation occur. It is expected that the main ‘spin’ effects occur when the loops re no longer in the same plane.

The results show that all loops are attracted to each other when they get very close together, which vindicates the view that neutrinos and electrons can be bound in the stacks which are the nucleons.

Maldwyn Centre for Theoretical Physics, 38 ParkRoad, Ipswich Suffolk UK +44 7941479964

Latest update 16 August 2020